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Criteria for the approval of an Assessment Quality Partner

The QCTO will appoint an entity as an assessment quality partner only if it is satisfied that the entity has: i.      The necessary expertise, experience and standing in relation to the occupational qualifications or foundational learning for which the assessment quality partner is appointed; and ii.      the resources necessary to perform its functions In terms of clause of the QCTO Delegation Policy, 22 June 2011 the criteria have been defined in detail as follows: i.     be  recommended  to  the  QCTO  by  the  relevant      DQP  during  the occupational                           development  process at a point  when they submit  an occupational profile. Possible evidence: letter of recommendation from [...]


Types of Protocol in Business

Business protocol is an extremely important aspect of the formation of relationships within a company and between companies. Protocol can be defined as the proper procedure of conduct. There are many different protocols necessary between different countries and similar care should be taken at all times in business. This will lead to a positive image for your company and your employees.

Different companies have drastically different levels of etiquette. This includes how co-workers treat each other and how formal the working environment is. For example, a very informal environment might yield employees that playfully joke with each other. If a new client were in the office and heard a playful joke out of context, he might think that your company is comprised of rude employees. Etiquette also includes how organized an office appears, the appearance of documents and reports that the office prepares and the way that employees relate to their superiors.

Attire is the one of the first things that will be noticed in a meeting or a visit to the office. Some businesses have very informal attire, allowing their employees to wear jeans and t-shirts. Most offices, however, use business casual or business formal attire as their protocol. This requires button-down shirts for men and women with dress pants or skirts. Men will often wear ties and potentially a suit or sport coat.

The communication protocol of an office can be quickly ascertained by calling the front desk. One receptionist may offer a formal and positive greeting, while a simple “hello” might be the standard greeting at another office. An office may institute specific policies for how employees communicate with each other and how they communicate with incoming calls or visitors. The communication protocol may also include whether employees are available to take calls outside of their normal office hours. It is a frequent occurrence in a busy city to see business people on their phones well before 8 a.m. and well after 6 p.m.

The protocol of the business meeting has changed greatly in the last decade, as many meetings are now incorporating the Internet and video to allow for worldwide capabilities. This gives an employee working from home a chance to both be involved in the meeting and to be much less formal. An employee could conceivably get away with wearing pajama pants to a formal business meeting if working from home. Some businesses have certain protocols set up to ensure that these meetings run a particular way and have specific professional standards.

Types of Nonverbal Communication

According to experts, a substantial portion of our communication is nonverbal. Every day, we respond to thousands on nonverbal cues and behaviors including postures, facial expression, eye gaze, gestures, and tone of voice. From our handshakes to our hairstyles, nonverbal details reveal who we are and impact how we relate to other people.

Scientific research on nonverbal communication and behavior began with the 1872 publication of Charles Darwin’s The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Since that time, there has been an abundance of research on the types, effects and expressions of unspoken communication and behavior. While these signals are often so subtle that we are not consciously aware of them, research has identified several different types of nonverbal communication.

In many cases, we communicate information in nonverbal ways using groups of behaviors. For example, we might combine a frown with crossed arms and unblinking eye gaze to indicate disapproval.

1. Facial Expression

Facial expressions are responsible for a huge proportion of nonverbal communication. Consider how much information can be conveyed with a smile or a frown. While nonverbal communication and behavior can vary dramatically between cultures, the facial expressions for happiness, sadness, anger and fear are similar throughout the world.

2. Gestures

Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words. Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts. Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture.

3. Paralinguistics

Paralinguistics refers to vocal communication that is separate from actual language. This includes factors such as tone of voice, loudness, inflection and pitch. Consider the powerful effect that tone of voice can have on the meaning of a sentence. When said in a strong tone of voice, listeners might interpret approval and enthusiasm. The same words said in a hesitant tone of voice might convey disapproval and a lack of interest.

4. Body Language and Posture

Posture and movement can also convey a great deal on information. Research on body language has grown significantly since the 1970’s, but popular media have focused on the over-interpretation of defensive postures, arm-crossing, and leg-crossing, especially after the publication of Julius Fast’s book Body Language. While these nonverbal behaviors can indicate feelings and attitudes, research suggests that body language is far more subtle and less definitive that previously believed.

5. Proxemics

People often refer to their need for “personal space,” which is also an important type of nonverbal communication. The amount of distance we need and the amount of space we perceive as belonging to us is influenced by a number of factors including social norms, situational factors, personality characteristics and level of familiarity. For example, the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet. On the other hand, the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet.

6. Eye Gaze

Looking, staring and blinking can also be important nonverbal behaviors. When people encounter people or things that they like, the rate of blinking increases and pupils dilate. Looking at another person can indicate a range of emotions, including hostility, interest and attraction.

7. Haptics

Communicating through touch is another important nonverbal behavior. There has been a substantial amount of research on the importance of touch in infancy and early childhood. Harry Harlow’s classic monkey study demonstrated how the deprivation of touch and contact impedes development. Baby monkeys raised by wire mothers experienced permanent deficits in behavior and social interaction. Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity, sympathy and other emotions.

8. Appearance

Our choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors affecting appearance are also considered a means of nonverbal communication. Research on color psychology has demonstrated that different colors can evoke different moods. Appearance can also alter physiological reactions, judgments and interpretations. Just think of all the subtle judgements you quickly make about someone based on his or her appearance. These first impressions are important, which is why experts suggest that job seekers dress appropriately for interviews with potential employers.